New Defender's Study Bible Notes
12:2 the first month. This event marks the establishment of the Jewish religious calendar, still followed today by orthodox Jews. This first month (Abib) corresponds approximately to our modern April.
12:4 too little for the lamb. Note that the lamb was never too little for the household. The lamb, of course, is a foreshadow of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God (John 1:29) our Passover (I Corinthians 5:7) without blemish, sacrificed for us (I Peter 1:19).
12:7 take of the blood. The blood was to be “given” (same word as “strike”) on the sides and above, but not underneath, where it could be stepped on (Hebrews 10:29).
12:9 the purtenance. That is, the internal organs.
12:15 put away leaven. The specific symbolism of the Passover required the absence of leaven, which always in the Bible seems to symbolize a corrupting influence. Leaven is associated with fermentation which is a process of decay (thus representative of God’s curse on the earth), and is also connected with the production of the toxic substance alcohol.
12:36 spoiled the Egyptians. This was the Lord’s way of constraining the Egyptians to repay the Israelites for the slave labor from which they had benefited for so long. The word “lent” could better be rendered “gave” and, in the previous verse, “asked” instead of “borrowed.”
12:37 six hundred thousand. Apparently at least two million people left Egypt under Moses at this time. See note on Exodus 1:7.
12:41 four hundred and thirty years. This 430 years of “sojourning” in Egypt (Exodus 12:40) seems to conflict with the statement by God to Abraham that his seed would be a stranger in a land that would “afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13) and the statement by Stephen to the same effect (Acts 7:6). These numbers are not just round numbers (note the stress here on “the selfsame day”). Varied interpretations have been offered for the discrepancy of the thirty years, but the most obvious seems the inference that the first thirty years in Egypt (seventeen years before Jacob died, thirteen years after his death) were years of favor under Pharaoh, but when the new king arose “which knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8), then the Israelites were soon resented and persecuted, and eventually enslaved, remaining in such disfavor for exactly four hundred years.