New Defender's Study Bible Notes
12:22 great host. All the tribes of Israel were represented in this host of over 340,000 armed warriors that united behind David to make him king. The ancient prophecy of Jacob that “the sceptre” would go to the tribe of Judah (Genesis 49:10) was finally being fulfilled, after almost a millennium of preparation. God’s Word is fulfilled in His time, but it is always fulfilled!
12:22 the host of God. God’s angelic hosts are innumerable (Hebrews 12:22; and Jeremiah 33:22).
12:23 the numbers. The numbers of warriors coming to David add up to 340,822. They included men from the tribes of Benjamin, Gad, Manasseh, Simeon, Levi, Ephraim, Issachar, Zebulun, Naphtali, Dan, Asher and Reuben, as well as his own tribe of Judah. Thus all the tribes of Israel were represented.
12:28 Zadok. It is noteworthy that the priests (Aaronites) and Levites were often warriors as well as spiritual leaders. Zadok, said to be “mighty of valour,” was priest both for David (I Chronicles 16:39) and Solomon (I Kings 1:26; 2:35). One of the first priests, Phinehas, was a strong warrior (Numbers 25:6-9).