New Defender's Study Bible Notes
30:2 If a man vow. These statutes concerning vows were possibly given at this time because it had only recently become a problem in the camp. Perhaps the imminence of the long-awaited Canaanite campaign had stimulated numerous rash vows which would be difficult to fulfill. Such vows usually were accompanied by a sort of bargain with God, expecting Him to do something in return (e.g., Jephthah’s vow, Judges 11:30, 31). Such bargains made with God or promises made in God’s name became blasphemies if made lightly and tentatively, and these statutes were intended to stress their gravity. Although vows were never commanded, once made they must be fulfilled, since God’s name had been involved.
30:3 If a woman also vow. Because a daughter’s vow might place obligations on her father, or a wife’s on her husband, provision was made for such a vow to be disallowed by the man involved, provided such action was taken as soon as it be learned about it.
30:16 These are the statutes. As with a number of the other statutes given under the Mosaic law these would be in effect only until superseded by higher laws brought by Christ (Matthew 5:33-37; James 5:12). There is no Biblical warrant for vows or oaths by Christians; their simple word should be their bond.