New Defender's Study Bible Notes
18:10 Alas, alas. The same word (ovai) as translated “woe” in Revelation 8:13.
18:10 one hour. Revelation 18:8 suggested Babylon’s troubles came “in one day.” Obviously the great earthquake will be catastrophic (Revelation 16:19), although it will not destroy Babylon, as it does other great cities. It will be followed some time later by an all-engulfing fire, followed by all the other plagues; the end result is the complete demolition of the city and all its activities. The kings and leaders of the nations (those not already on the way to Armageddon) will observe the terrible fire “afar off,” probably by some form of visual media, beamed all over the world.