New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:9 the Lord Jesus. This should be understood as confessing “Jesus as Lord,” with all that such a confession implies. The Greek word, kurios, was applied in the Roman world to the emperor, but in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament to God. Thus confessing Jesus as Lord meant both renouncing emperor worship and acknowledging Jesus as God. Furthermore, one does not come to Jesus with reservations as to what he will do or believe. Jesus must be accepted as God, and as Lord of his life; One must confess that he will believe and obey His Word unreservedly, in particular, believing in the bodily resurrection, which implies belief also in creation, for only the Creator of life could defeat sin and death.
10:10 unto salvation. There can be no such thing as a secret Christian, for verbal confession of Jesus as Lord is prerequisite to receiving eternal salvation, after receiving His imputed righteousness by faith.
10:11 not be ashamed. Paul again quotes Isaiah 28:16 (note Romans 9:33). In Isaiah, “be ashamed” was “make haste.” The believer finds true rest in Christ.
10:12 Jew and the Greek. Although Paul has been writing primarily to the Jewish believers in the Roman churches, he again stresses that the gospel applies equally to the Greek converts and, indeed, to all who call on the Lord Jesus.
10:13 whosoever shall call. See notes on Acts 2:21, where the same verse is quoted (Joel 2:32). Paul had been stressing God’s electing sovereignty in Romans 9; here he again stresses human responsibility. Both are true.