Meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena, including weather processes and climate trends. Through experiments, scientists gain a more complete understanding of what makes weather work. Through modeling, meteorologists can project the workings of weather to predict such things as storm tracks and intensities.
The same modeling technology is also used to extrapolate the workings of weather into the past. These standard models have been used, for example, to calculate the intensity of huge storms that piled massive amounts of frozen precipitation onto continents, which initiated the post-Flood Ice Age.