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Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

15:3 smite Amalek. It is generally assumed that the Amalekites were descendants of Esau’s grandson (Genesis 36:12). There is a reference, however, to “the country of the Amalekites” in the earlier times of Abraham (Genesis 14:7), so it may be that there was an earlier Amalek, a descendant of Canaan, after whom Esau’s grandson was named. In any case, the Amalekites were cruel and inveterate enemies of Israel. They had tried to destroy Israel as soon as God’s people escaped from Egypt, and God therefore had ordained their future destruction (Exodus 17:8-16; Deuteronomy 25:17-19).

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