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Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children: therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest's office.
And David distributed them, both Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, according to their offices in their service.
And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar; and thus were they divided. Among the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen chief men of the house of their fathers, and eight among the sons of Ithamar according to the house of their fathers.
Thus were they divided by lot, one sort with another; for the governors of the sanctuary, and governors of the house of God, were of the sons of Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar.
And Shemaiah the son of Nethaneel the scribe, one of the Levites, wrote them before the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and before the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites: one principal household being taken for Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar.
Now the first lot came forth to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah,
The third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim,
The one and twentieth to Jachin, the two and twentieth to Gamul,
These were the orderings of them in their service to come into the house of the LORD, according to their manner, under Aaron their father, as the LORD God of Israel had commanded him.
And the rest of the sons of Levi were these: Of the sons of Amram; Shubael: of the sons of Shubael; Jehdeiah.
Concerning Rehabiah: of the sons of Rehabiah, the first was Isshiah.
And the sons of Hebron; Jeriah the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, Jekameam the fourth.
The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi: the sons of Jaaziah; Beno.
Of Mahli came Eleazar, who had no sons.
Concerning Kish: the son of Kish was Jerahmeel.
The sons also of Mushi; Mahli, and Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the sons of the Levites after the house of their fathers.
These likewise cast lots over against their brethren the sons of Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, and Ahimelech, and the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites, even the principal fathers over against their younger brethren.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

24:1 Now these are the divisions. David not only prepared plans and materials for the future temple, but also organized the priests and Levites who would be taking care of it and officiating at its services. Chapters 24–28 of I Chronicles list in some detail the various duties of these men and their descendants. Among the latter would be those who would be the first readers of I Chronicles—that is, the returning Babylonian exiles who would be serving in the restored temple.

24:2 Nadab and Abihu. Nadab and Abihu, though sons of Aaron, the first high priest, were slain by God when they presumed to make unauthorized offerings with fire they had kindled rather than using the fire kindled by God (Leviticus 9:23–10:2).

24:3 Ahimelech. Ahimelech was the young priest who had served with David before he became king (I Samuel 22:20). The priestly services were divided by lot among the descendants of the two sons of Aaron who had succeeded him, Eleazar and Ithamar. These are named in I Chronicles 24:7-19. The non-priestly descendants of Levi were assigned various services also by lot (I Chronicles 24:31).

24:10 eighth to Abijah. The course assigned to Abijah eventually descended to Zachariah, the father of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5).

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