New Defender's Study Bible Notes
12:1 word of the LORD for Israel. These words introduce the last section of the book of Zechariah (chapters 12–14), one of the most remarkable prophetic sections in the Bible. Its climax is the great victory of God over all His enemies, and the fulfillment of all His promises to Israel. As such, it appropriately begins with a reminder that the God of Israel is none other than the mighty Creator of the universe and of every human being.
12:3 burdensome stone. For many centuries, Jerusalem and its people have been “an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations” (Deuteronomy 28:37), “a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places” (Jeremiah 24:9). But “in that day,” it will become “a burdensome stone” to all these peoples, and God will judge the nations in relation to their treatment of Israel. Many such nations have already been judged (ancient Assyria, imperial Rome, Czarist Russia, Nazi Germany). The kingdom of the Beast will have its turn as well.
12:9 destroy all the nations. “In that day” is generally synonymous with “the day of the LORD.” Certainly in this context, it points forward to the great end-time invasion of Israel by the multi-national armies of the Beast (see also Isaiah 63:1-6; Micah 5:5-15; Matthew 24:15-21; Revelation 12:13-15; 13:7; 16:13-16; 19:19; etc.).
12:10 the spirit of grace. This is the final reference to “grace” in the Old Testament (the first is in Genesis 6:8). Despite the widespread opinion that “grace” is strictly a New Testament concept, there are at least sixty-eight occurrences of “grace” and ninety-eight of “graciously” in the Old Testament. The related concept of “lovingkindness” or “mercy” (same Hebrew word) occurs over two hundred times.
12:10 pierced. This is the great day when Christ returns in glory, and Israel will finally recognize Him as her Messiah, seeing the spear wound yet in His side (Zechariah 12:10 is quoted in John 19:37 and Revelation 1:7) and the nail prints in His hands (Zechariah 13:6). By His “Spirit of grace and of supplications” God will open their eyes and hearts, and “all Israel shall be saved” (Romans 11:26).
12:11 great mourning. When their national age-long sin is finally recognized and confessed, there will indeed be great mourning, but also great joy (Zephaniah 3:14-20).
12:11 Hadadrimmon. Hadadrimmon was a town in the valley of Megiddo (same as Armageddon). The last of the godly kings of Israel and Judah, good King Josiah, was slain by the Egyptian army at Megiddo (II Chronicles 35:20-25), and there was great mourning. There may also be a possible suggestion of great mourning at Armageddon over the multitudes slain there when Christ returns (Revelation 14:14-20).