New Defender's Study Bible Notes
48:1 Against Moab. This long chapter is fully given to pronouncing God’s imminent judgment on Moab and its various towns. Other prophecies against Moab are given in Isaiah 15–16, Ezekiel 25:8-11, Zephaniah 2:8-11, and others, but this is the longest and most comprehensive.
48:2 in Heshbon. Heshbon is one of over twenty Moabite cities and villages singled out in this chapter for destruction. Most have long vanished, so completely that not even their ancient locations are known. Jeremiah’s prophecies have indeed been fulfilled. Heshbon had been an Amorite capital, later taken over by the Moabites, then by Israel, and later recaptured by the Moabites and eventually by the Ammonites. Its remains have been excavated archaeologically in modern times.
48:5 going down of Horonaim. Also mentioned in Jeremiah 48:34, Horonaim is one of the many Moabite cities mentioned in this chapter that has vanished so completely that its very location is unknown today. However, its ancient existence has been corroborated by being mentioned on the famous Moabite Stone.
48:18 Dibon. Dibon was some thirteen miles east of the Dead Sea, and was the discovery site of the Moabite Stone. At one time it was Moab’s capital.
48:42 Moab. Although Moab was related to Israel, through Lot, the nephew of Abraham (Genesis 12:5), and the father of both Moab and Ammon (Genesis 19:36-38), the Moabites were worshipers of false gods, especially Chemosh (Numbers 21:29), and often enemies of Israel. The prophesied invasion and desolation of Moab, whose country was in the fields and mountains just east of the Dead Sea, soon took place. However, the Moabites continued to exist as a very minor nation for many centuries after Nebuchadnezzar. Eventually, however, they disintegrated completely, just as prophesied.
48:47 bring again the captivity. A remnant of Moab, along with other ancient nations, will somehow be recognized and restored during the millennial kingdom (compare Jeremiah 12:14-17; 49:6,39).