New Defender's Study Bible Notes
23:1 stones. That is, the “testicles.”
23:2 bastard. The Hebrew word here possibly refers only to certain types of illegitimate children, particularly those conceived in especially flagrant sins, such as incest or in pagan idolatrous ceremonies. However, note the listing of a ten-generation genealogy of Judah’s illegitimate son Phares to David (Ruth 4:18-22).
23:3 Moabite. This proscription applied specifically to males. Ruth, for example, was a Moabite woman who married an Israelite man and became a proselyte to his faith (Ruth 1:4,16).
23:12 without the camp. The sanitation practices outlined in Deuteronomy 23:9-14 were much in advance of those of other nations of the time, especially in reference to armies in their encampments. This no doubt contributed in measure to the freedom from disease promised them by the Lord (Exodus 15:26).
23:13 paddle. That is, a “small spade.”
23:15 servant which is escaped. This instruction evidently had to do with men or women taken captive from one of the cities outside the land of Canaan (Deuteronomy 20:11,14). God had given a different set of instructions relative to indentured Hebrew servants (e.g., Exodus 21:2-6; Deuteronomy 15:12-18).
23:18 price of a dog. It is evident from the parallel structure of these ordinances that the term “dog” is here used as an equivalent to “sodomite,” presumably because of similar behaviors of the two. Since homosexuality is an “abomination” in God’s sight (e.g., Leviticus 18:22), it is understandable that Paul should warn Christians to “beware of dogs” (Philippians 3:2) and that, in describing the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem, the Lord Himself says that “without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie” (Revelation 22:15).
24:2 another man’s wife. Although divorce and remarriage were permitted in the Mosaic laws, Christ has reminded us that this is contrary to God’s creative will for believers, except under very special circumstances (Matthew 19:3-9).