New Defender's Study Bible Notes
4:4 transgress. This ironic invitation recognizes the divisiveness of the false altar at Bethel, established by Jeroboam I (I Kings 12:29-33) and condemned by God. Although God had blessed the altars at Bethel established by Abraham and Jacob (Genesis 12:8; 28:17-19), He had by this time ordained the temple at Jerusalem as the sole place of sacrificial worship (Deuteronomy 12:1-14).
4:11 Sodom and Gomorrah. The terrible destruction of the wicked cities of the plain (Genesis 19:24-25) was still regarded as historical fact, some twelve or more centuries after the event.
4:12 meet thy God. God had sent judgment after judgment on Israel, warning them to repent, but they would not heed. Now, nothing but destruction and dispersion awaited them.
4:13 createth the wind. Here is a parenthetical insertion, in the midst of dire warnings of judgment because of following false gods, asserting the right and power of the true God to pronounce such judgments. The Creator and Controller of all things, including the very thoughts of men, is none other than the Lord (Jehovah), the God (Elohim) of all the hosts of heaven.
4:13 the morning darkness. This is probably an indirect reference to the awful judgment of the great flood when, for the first time, dark clouds obscured the sun, turning the bright mornings into dark mornings, with the waters finally covering all the high places on earth. Then, when it was over, God formed our present mountains, causing the Flood sediments to rise up and the waters to go down (Psalm 104:7-9). See also the note on Amos 5:8.