New Defender's Study Bible Notes
9:2 the second time. The Lord appeared to Solomon twice, presumably in a theophany (see I Kings 3:5). However, He also spoke to him on at least two other occasions (I Kings 6:11; 11:11), possibly through a prophet.
9:5 promised to David. For this promise, see II Samuel 7:12-13.
9:10 twenty years. Of these twenty years, seven were spent in building the temple and thirteen in all the buildings associated with Solomon’s palace (I Kings 6:38; 7:1).
9:13 What cities are these. Apparently, Hiram refused to accept these cities with which Solomon thought to repay Hiram, so Solomon later renovated them for Israel’s use (II Chronicles 8:2). Presumably Solomon repaid Hiram in some other way, but there is no mention of it in the Biblical record. As far as the name “Cabul” is concerned, Josephus rendered it as “worthless.”
9:15 the levy. Solomon undertook numerous major construction projects, not only for the temple and his own palace, but numerous others, including the strengthening of the key cities of Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer, as well as Jerusalem (I Kings 9:15). For this he required many thousands of laborers, and these were mostly conscripts from the large numbers of Canaanites remaining in the land (I Kings 9:20-21). This policy, while developing Israel as never before or since, led to much resentment among the people (I Kings 12:3-5).
9:15 Gezer. The cities mentioned in this verse were important cities during the reign of Solomon, a fact clearly confirmed by archaeological excavations at their sites.
9:16 king of Egypt. The Egyptians, although weakened for many years by the plagues under Moses and under the Hyksos invaders, had apparently become strong again by this time. They did not challenge Israel, however. In fact, Pharaoh gave Solomon his own daughter as wife, with the probable intent of forging an alliance with Israel. They also took much of the coastal area from the Philistines and the nearby coast city of Gezer, which Ephraim had never been able to conquer, from its Canaanite inhabitants, and then gave it to his daughter who had married Solomon.
9:19 cities for his chariots. One of Solomon’s chariot cities was Megiddo (I Kings 9:15). Excavations there have revealed numerous stalls and other facilities for horses.
9:22 make no bondmen. This verse indicates that Solomon’s levy of forced labor applied only to Canaanites, not Israelites. However, he had previously “raised a levy out of all Israel...thirty thousand men” for work on the temple (I Kings 5:13). These were probably Canaanites who still lived among the Israelites.
9:24 build Millo. Millo was not the name of a specific town. The word apparently means an embankment, or possibly a fortification. Solomon’s palace was not in Jerusalem itself, but was near the city.
9:26 navy of ships. This is the first reference in the Bible to a navy (the last is in the next chapter—I Kings 10:22), and refers to a fleet of commercial vessels which contributed largely to Solomon’s great prosperity. The ruins of this port, with its nearby smelters and ore deposits, have been excavated by archaeologists.
9:28 came to Ophir. The gold in Ophir was legendary. One talent was about as much as one man could comfortably carry (II Kings 5:23).