New Defender's Study Bible Notes
16:10 seat of the beast. The first four vials of wrath will have affected the whole earth. The fifth, however, will be applied only to the “seat” (i.e., “throne”) of the beast and his kingdom (presumably his capital). This will likely be at restored Babylon (see notes on Revelation 17 and 18). The contrast between the intense light from God all over the world with the Satanic darkness in its capitol, should be a profound spiritual parable.