New Defender's Study Bible Notes
2:10 have well drunk. “Have well drunk” is one word in the Greek (methuo) meaning simply “are drunk,” and is translated with this meaning in every other instance (e.g., Matthew 24:49) where it is used.
2:10 the good wine. This “good wine” had been miraculously created by the Creator, and was brand new, with no time to ferment and become old, intoxicating wine. The Greek word oinos was used for the juice of grapes in general, the same word for both unfermented and fermented wine, with the context determining which. The decay process, utilizing leaven (always in Scripture representing corruption) to convert good fresh wine into old intoxicating wine, could not have acted in this case, because Christ Himself had created the wine in its originally intended form before sin and decay entered the world. In this form, it was certainly the best wine, having all the health-giving, joy-inspiring character it was created to exhibit in the beginning. It was probably the same wine which Christ will provide in “that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom” (Matthew 26:29), and will certainly not induce drunkenness.
2:11 beginning of miracles. This is the first of the seven great “miracles,” or “signs” (same Greek word) which John describes in order to persuade his readers to believe on Jesus Christ (John 20:30-31). Like the other six (see John 4:49-54; 5:5-9; 6:5-14; 6:16-21; 9:1-7; 11:41-44), this first miracle was a miracle of creation (as distinct from miracles of providence, which only control rates and timing of natural processes). It required the direct creative power of the Creator, superseding the law of entropy, in order to cause an instantaneous increase of complexity, transmuting the simple molecular structure of water into the much more complex structure of new wine.