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And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.
And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:
And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;
Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

2:10 have well drunk. “Have well drunk” is one word in the Greek (methuo) meaning simply “are drunk,” and is translated with this meaning in every other instance (e.g., Matthew 24:49) where it is used.

2:10 the good wine. This “good wine” had been miraculously created by the Creator, and was brand new, with no time to ferment and become old, intoxicating wine. The Greek word oinos was used for the juice of grapes in general, the same word for both unfermented and fermented wine, with the context determining which. The decay process, utilizing leaven (always in Scripture representing corruption) to convert good fresh wine into old intoxicating wine, could not have acted in this case, because Christ Himself had created the wine in its originally intended form before sin and decay entered the world. In this form, it was certainly the best wine, having all the health-giving, joy-inspiring character it was created to exhibit in the beginning. It was probably the same wine which Christ will provide in “that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom” (Matthew 26:29), and will certainly not induce drunkenness.

2:11 beginning of miracles. This is the first of the seven great “miracles,” or “signs” (same Greek word) which John describes in order to persuade his readers to believe on Jesus Christ (John 20:30-31). Like the other six (see John 4:49-54; 5:5-9; 6:5-14; 6:16-21; 9:1-7; 11:41-44), this first miracle was a miracle of creation (as distinct from miracles of providence, which only control rates and timing of natural processes). It required the direct creative power of the Creator, superseding the law of entropy, in order to cause an instantaneous increase of complexity, transmuting the simple molecular structure of water into the much more complex structure of new wine.

2:13 the Jews’ passover. John called it “the Jews’ passover” rather than “the LORD’s passover” (Exodus 12:27), probably because he was writing for Gentiles, but perhaps also because the Jewish leaders had so corrupted its observance.

2:14 in the temple. This visit to Jerusalem and the temple at the beginning of Christ’s ministry is recorded only by John, as is true with many of the other events and discourses in this gospel. As the “disciple whom Jesus loved” (John 13:23), John may well have been told more by Jesus, and also been able to remember more through the Holy Spirit (John 14:26) than the other writers in order to do this.

2:16 my Father’s. Note John’s reference to “my Father” instead of “your Father” (see also Luke 2:49), essentially thereby claiming Christ’s unique divine Sonship (John 1:34; 5:18).

2:16 house of merchandise. Three years later, when Jesus came to the temple again and found the situation even worse, He called it “a den of thieves” (Matthew 21:13). This coming to the temple may also be considered as a precursive fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies regarding Christ’s coming to the future temple (Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1-4; Ezekiel 40ff.; especially 43:5).

2:17 it was written. This event fulfilled the prophecy of Psalm 69:9.

2:18 What sign. “For the Jews require a sign” (I Corinthians 1:22; Matthew 12:38).

2:19 in three days. In addition to referring to the temple of His body (John 2:21), there may be a parallel reference to the raising up of the future millennial temple. Compare Hosea 6:2.

2:22 believed the scripture. Note the superior category of faith of the disciples to that of the “many” who believed “when they saw the miracles,” but soon fell away. The disciples did not believe because of the miracles, but because of the Scripture and Jesus’ words. It is far better to place one’s faith in God’s Word than in signs and wonders.

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