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Concerning Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; there is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

49:23 Damascus. Damascus, the ancient capital of Syria, along with the other cities Arpad and Hamath and all of Syria, had already been subjugated by Assyria, which in turn had been conquered by Babylonia. Nevertheless, the invading Babylonians still further humiliated the Syrians, as Jeremiah warned.

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