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And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them.

Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;

Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;

Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?

And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart,

Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children.

And when he had gone a little farther thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets.

And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.

And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he surnamed ° them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder:

And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite,

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

1:2 was without form, and void. The verb “was” in Genesis 1:2 is the regular Hebrew verb of being (hayetha) and does not denote a change of state unless the context so requires. It only rarely is translated “became,” as the gap theory postulates here. Neither does the phrase tohu waw bohu need to mean “ruined and desolated,” as the gap theory requires. The King James translation “without form and void” is the proper meaning.

15:6 believed. This is the first mention of “belief” or “faith” in the Bible, as well as the first mention of “counted” or “imputed.” In Noah’s case, “grace” preceded imputed righteousness (Genesis 6:9–“just” means “righteous”); in Abraham’s case, it was “faith.” Both are essential for righteousness that satisfies God (Ephesians 2:8-10); one stresses the divine side, the other the human. This verse is quoted three times in the New Testament (Romans 4:3; Galatians 3:6; James 2:23); in each case it is stressed that Abraham is a type of all who are saved, the principle always being that of salvation through faith (which is by grace) unto righteousness.

22:1 God did tempt. This is the first occurrence of the word “tempt” (Hebrew nacah). It does not mean “tempt to do evil” (James 1:13), but is usually translated “prove.” Although God knew what Abraham would do, it must be “proved” to all (including even Abraham himself) that he loved God more than anyone else and that his faith in God’s Word was absolute, thus demonstrating the validity of God’s selection of him as father of the chosen nation.

30:9 no strange incense. The exact composition of the incense is specified in Exodus 30:34-35. Since the incense represents the prayers of believers, this instruction indicates that effective prayer must be in accord with God’s specifications (see note on James 4:3).

13:2 plague of leprosy. The dread disease of leprosy in ancient times was not only loathsome, but contagious and incurable. Therefore, the seemingly cruel isolation of the leper was necessary for the survival of the tribe. Because of the malady’s character, the Scriptures make it also to be a type of the dread disease of sin, which also is humanly contagious and incurable, eventually becoming loathsome and lethal (compare Psalm 38:3-11; Isaiah 1:6; James 1:15).

19:18 love thy neighbour. The Lord Jesus combined this command with that of Deuteronomy 6:4-5, and called them the two greatest commandments (see Matthew 22:37-40; Mark 12:28-31; Luke 10:27). Note also Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8.

1:3 go forth to war. This census was commanded by God with military preparedness in view, as the Israelites would have to defeat the pagan nations in Canaan if they were to claim the promised land. This generation, however, would instead have to die in the wilderness because of their lack of faith that God would enable them to do this (Numbers 14:26-35). l:18 assembled all the congregation. It is interesting that the Greek word used to translate “congregation” in the Septuagint is ecclesia, the New Testament word for “church.” Stephen actually called this congregation “the church in the wilderness” (Acts 7:38). Another word used for church in the New Testament is “assembly” (James 2:2; note also Hebrews 10:25). This assembly of “all the congregations,” probably numbering in the millions, thus might be considered a type of the coming “general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven” (Hebrews 12:23), which will all be called together in heaven at the return of Christ.

5:4 without the camp. Because of the contagious and incurable nature of such lethal plagues as leprosy, such ostracism was mandatory in close quarters like those in the wilderness camp and, later, in crowded towns and villages. They are, therefore, appropriate types of the fatal spiritual disease of sin, which “when it is finished, bringeth forth death” (James 1:15). Those who die in their sins must be separated forever “from the presence of the Lord” (II Thessalonians 1:9) for, in the holy city, “there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth” (Revelation 21:27). However, the Lord Jesus Christ, “that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered without the gate” (Hebrews 13:12) taking “our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness” (I Peter 2:24).

30:16 These are the statutes. As with a number of the other statutes given under the Mosaic law these would be in effect only until superseded by higher laws brought by Christ (Matthew 5:33-37; James 5:12). There is no Biblical warrant for vows or oaths by Christians; their simple word should be their bond.

25:22 pisseth against the wall. This expression (see also I Samuel 25:34) was evidently in David’s day a depreciating way of referring to males, and was not necessarily considered a vulgarity, as it would be today. Neither was it so considered in the Elizabethan Age, when the King James translation (always faithful to the original, in so far as possible) was produced. In any case, it accurately reports David’s angry threat. It is also possible that the threat was one implying forcible castration instead of murder, in order to cut off Nabal’s possible seed and heirs.

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