New Defender's Study Bible Notes
41:44 I am Pharaoh. The identity of this particular Pharaoh has long been a matter of dispute among Bible scholars, as is the entire subject of Egyptian chronology. The generally favorable treatment accorded Joseph and his brethren during this period has been considered by some as support for the view that this Pharaoh was among the Hyksos kings who ruled Egypt for almost 200 years, since their Semitic background possibly would make them more amenable to association with Israelites than would be the case with the native Egyptians, who were Hamitic in background. On the other hand, the Hyksos were notoriously cruel and pagan Baal-worshipers, according to the evidence from ancient historians such as Manetho and Josephus. The question of Egyptian chronology and the identity of the various Pharaohs mentioned in the Bible is still unsettled, but that fact should not mitigate against our confidence in the Biblical records, which are much superior to the highly self-serving and uncertain testimony of the ancient historians and the archaeological inscriptions.