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New Defender's Study Bible Notes

25:22 struggled together within her. Babies have real feelings, thoughts and personalities even before birth. This is clear Biblically (Psalm 139:14-16; Ecclesiastes 11:5; Luke 1:44; etc.), and is being increasingly confirmed by modern scientific monitoring of embryonic children growing in the womb.

3:15 God of your fathers. Jesus Christ referred to this claim (especially as made in Exodus 3:6) as proof of life beyond the grave (Matthew 22:32). The “fathers” were still living, since God was still their God. If God is eternal, so are those whom He has created (Ecclesiastes 3:14).

4:32 three thousand proverbs. Jewish scholars have long recognized Solomon as the primary author of the Biblical books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon, and possibly even some of the Psalms. The uniquely cogent wisdom expressed in these books is consistent with the Biblical testimonies concerning his wisdom. The portions of his writings now recognized as divinely inspired Scripture were, however, according to the summation in this verse, only a fraction of his writings.

8:46 sinneth not. Solomon acknowledged here in his prayer that all men are sinners before God (note Romans 3:10,23; James 2:10; etc). Note also his testimony in Ecclesiastes 7:20.

49:5 the days of evil. That is, the days of old age (Ecclesiastes 12:1). Ever since the entrance of sin and death into the world, followed by the Protevangelic promise that the Serpent would bruise the heel of the woman’s Seed (Genesis 3:15), her children in every age have been stung by Satan with his iniquities throughout their lives, amassing an impressive total as the end of life nears. In view of God’s promised redemption, however (Psalm 49:8, 15), there is no need to fear.

71:18 old and grayheaded. This is a worthy prayer for all elderly believers, as well as a reminder to younger Christians that the older generation still has much to contribute to the present spiritual conflict in terms of accumulated experience and wisdom. “There is no discharge in that war” (Ecclesiastes 8:8). A concerned Christian should continue to serve the Lord, in prayer if nothing else, as long as he has breath.

78:69 established for ever. The earth, like all God’s creation, will continue forever (Ecclesiastes 1:44). God is the Creator—not a “de-Creator!” (Ecclesiastes 3:14). In “the day of the Lord” (II Peter 3:10), “the earth...shall be burned up,” but its mass will possibly be converted into other forms of energy (heat, sound, etc.). It will not be completely annihilated. God will then renew the earth as a “new earth” (II Peter 3:13) which will never pass away (Isaiah 66:22).

139:15 My substance. This refers to the basic frame or skeleton. Note also the similar testimony in Ecclesiastes 11:5. The marvels of embryonic growth are still largely unexplained by scientists, but God knows!

148:6 for ever and ever. Although the earth and its elements must yet be cleansed by fire (II Peter 3:10), God’s physical universe will endure forever. God is not capricious; He does not “un-create” what He has created (Ecclesiastes 3:14). See also Psalm 78:69; 104:5; Daniel 12:3.

Introduction to Proverbs The book of Proverbs has traditionally been ascribed to wise king Solomon, who “spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five” (I Kings 4:32). Even though the first verse of Proverbs claims Solomon’s authorship for the book, it is probable that he collected many of them from various sources (note Ecclesiastes 12:9). The last two chapters were apparently written by two men named Agur and Lemuel, respectively (Proverbs 30:1; 31:1). Whether Solomon wrote most of them, however, or collected most of them, their present form is rightly attributed to Solomon (note also Proverbs 10:1; 25:1), with the present form of the book possibly organized by the servants of King Hezekiah (25:1). There is also a possibility that certain sections were written by a school of savants known as “the wise” (Proverbs 22:17; 24:23). The book has been organized in several distinct sections. The first seven verses constitute an introductory statement of purpose, involving the impartation of eleven aspects of God’s mind to the learner (wisdom, instruction, understanding, justice, judgment, equity, subtlety, knowledge, discretion, learning, and wise counsels). Following this is a section—from 1:8 through 9:18 (Proverbs 1:8; 1:10; 1:15; 2:1; 3:1; 3:11; 3:21; 4:1; 4:10; 4:20; 5:1; 5:7; 6:1; 6:20; 7:1; 7:24; 8:32)—containing seventeen lessons, each beginning with “my son” or “ye children.” Prominent in these lessons, and throughout most of the book, is the contrast between two symbolic women, Wisdom and Folly, or the Virtuous Woman and the Strange (or Foreign) Woman. The collection of 375 proverbs from Proverbs 10:1 through Proverbs 22:16 has no specific theme or continuity. Each proverb is an independent pithy saying, with no relation to context, often consisting of a couplet, of either supporting or contrasting assertions. The sections written, or collected, by “the wise” (Proverbs 22:17–24:22 and 24:23-34) also consist of wise sayings on many subjects, but in most cases continuity is retained through several verses. Another set of isolated, independent proverbs appears in Proverbs 25–29, under the heading of “proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out” (Proverbs 25:1). Hezekiah was king of Judah about three hundred years after Solomon; thus the book of Proverbs did not assume its final form until long after Solomon’s day. Finally there are the last two chapters, identified with Agur and Lemuel, respectively. Neither of these two men is otherwise identified, though there have been many speculations. Proverbs 30 is a striking chapter with many quotable verses. The testimony of Lemuel in Proverbs 31 includes the famous acrostic poem (Proverbs 31:10-31) on the “virtuous woman.” The many sayings of Proverbs, seemingly so disjointed, all contribute to the full, rich life of a true redeemed follower of God. Each one well deserves thoughtful study and careful meditation, and all together show that God is directly concerned with every detail of our lives.

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