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But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

1:8 power. The “power” associated with the coming of the Holy Spirit on a believer is more than just a dynamic preaching style. It will also involve “boldness” and “great grace” (Acts 4:31,33) in witnessing, centered in the wisdom of God rather than the wisdom of men (I Corinthians 2:4-6) and manifestation of “the fruit of the Spirit” in one’s life (see notes on Galatians 5:22-23).

1:8 shall be witnesses. This is not merely a command but also a remarkably fulfilled prophecy. Think of the apparent absurdity of a motley band of followers of an itinerant preacher, who only had a three-year career, setting forth to “be witnesses unto me…unto the uttermost part of the earth.” Yet that is exactly what has happened! The only answer to such an anomaly is the divine origin of the prophecy, implemented by the presence and power of the Holy Spirit.

1:8 Samaria. In a sense this also provides an outline of the book of Acts. Acts 1–7 describe the witness in Jerusalem, Acts 8–12 in Judaea and Samaria, Acts 13–28 in the “uttermost parts of the earth;” the account suspended at the point when Paul had reached the distant capital of the Roman Empire. The narrative focuses mainly on the ministries of Peter and Paul, but the others scattered into various other regions (Acts 8:4). Traditions tell of Thomas going to India, for example, and of others preaching in various distant lands. In any case, the principle still stands. The Christian witness is vital both at home and abroad.

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