8:8 new covenant. Hebrews 8:8-12 constitute a quotation from Jeremiah 31:31-34. Note that this “new covenant” is specifically affirmed, both by Jeremiah and here in the book of Hebrews, to be with Israel and Judah, not with the Christian church. However, since the covenant includes the promise of eternal forgiveness (Hebrews 8:12), it is evident that it applies only to those in Israel and Judah who have been redeemed through faith in Christ, not only as their Messiah but also as their Savior. See notes on Jeremiah 31:31-37, Romans 11:25-26, and Ezekiel 36:24-28. The promise must be fulfilled in the coming millennium, after “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jeremiah 30:7-9) during the “great tribulation” (Matthew 24:21). At the climax of that terrible time, the people of Israel still living will all believe on Him “whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for Him” (Zechariah 12:10). “In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness” (Zechariah 13:1). At the same time, since believers from both Israel and the Gentiles have been made one in Christ (Ephesians 2:11-18), the “new covenant,” or “new testament,” becomes applicable also to Gentile believers (note Matthew 26:28; I Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 9:15; 12:24).