Ocean Circulation Velocities over the Continents during Noah's Flood | The Institute for Creation Research
Ocean Circulation Velocities over the Continents during Noah's Flood

Download PDFDownload Ocean Circulation Velocities over the Continents during Noah's Flood PDF

by Raj Prabhu, M.S., Mark F. Horstemeyer, Ph.D., and Wesley Brewer, Ph.D.

In A. A. Snelling (Ed.) (2008). Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Creationism (pp. 247–254). Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship and Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research.


This paper focuses on numerical experiments that qualitatively explore the velocities and patterns of ocean circulations that could have risen when the earth’s continental surface was mostly flooded during the catastrophic event of Noah’s day. Velocities and flow patterns are observed resulting from the earth’s rotation and gravity and other pertinent parameters: change in latitude, water depth, supercontinent size, number of days, and mesh size. This parametric study can provide insight into the water velocities that carried Noah’s Ark and insight regarding the hydraulic mechanisms that transported millions of cubic kilometers of sediment during Noah’s Flood. The hydraulic sedimentation may explain many present-day geological formations, which reveal sudden and catastrophic formation. In many cases the sedimentary distributions horizontally extended hundreds and thousands of kilometers and accomplished a vast amount of geological work in a matter of months. The geological conditions were assumed to be similar to that of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic era, when the Pangea supercontinent existed. The numerical calculations employ two codes, one written by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the other by Dr. Baumgardner (1994). Both codes solve the 2-D shallow water equations on a rotating sphere with surface topography. The calculations from Dr. Baumgardner’s code showed a surprising yet persistent result with high velocities of the ocean currents over the Pangean-like continental configurations. The magnitudes of these velocities were around 40–80 m/s at higher latitudes. Catastrophic cavitation occurs for water velocities around 20-30 m/s and for free stream conditions lead to vaporous cavitation (Brennen, 1995; 2005, p. 142; Brewer, 2002, p. 4). This depends on the cavitation number for the prevailing conditions. Around such velocities, one would expect severe and rapid erosion to be associated with any major transgression of the continents by the ocean currents. Such currents would be expected to arise in the context of the scripture “all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered with water” (Genesis 7:19). The NCAR code results showed some slightly lower velocities ranging up to the mid-20 m/s range. Even with these velocities, which are lower than those of the Dr. Baumgardner’s code results, the velocities are still sufficiently large to induce a global movement of sedimentation. As such, these types of calculations strengthen the evidence for Noah’s Flood and the associated consequences on the geological history of sedimentary rocks.


Genesis Flood, Ocean currents, Sediment transport, Sedimentation patterns, Shallow water equations, Current velocities, Cavitations.

For Full Text

Please see the Download PDF link above for the entire article.

The Latest
Many Martian Volcanoes May Be Mudflows
Tens of thousands of volcano-looking features exist across the northern lowlands and other areas across Mars.1 In the past, these volcanoes...

A Believer's Response to Challenging Times
As I write this, stay-at-home mandates due to the COVID-19 pandemic are still in force across much of the country. The resulting economic turmoil has...

The Bird That Walks and Flies Under Water
The official bird of Norway is Cinclus cinclus, the white-throated dipper, an ordinary-looking bird that behaves in very extraordinary ways.1...

Does Scripture Say Anything about Climate?
Climate change conversations squeeze their way into so many different topics, yet climate research is rife with confusion. Which scientists are right—those...

Missing Ice Age Forests Fit Flood/Ice Age Model
Secular scientists say Earth has experienced many Ice Ages. But the evidence for multiple Ice Ages is very weak.1 There is strong geological...

How Not to Date Hominid Remains
A recent Neanderthal study in the journal Science mixed detailed archaeological finds with stories about human origins. As is typical, the report’s...

An Ocean of Viruses
A virus is a very tiny structure that, in its simplest definition, is some nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) packed inside a protein coat. Viruses can’t...

Revisiting the Isochron Age Model, Part 1
Radioactive dating is based on the decay rate of a starting radioactive isotope (the parent) into its stable counterpart (the daughter). An age is assigned...

Flood Model Solves Antarctica Rainforest Mystery
A recent study published in Nature has evolutionary scientists baffled. The researchers reportedly found an ancient rainforest in Antarctica, of all...

Free Online ICR Live Science Presentations
Use Zoom or Facebook to attend free ICR events online! Discover how science confirms creation even when you’re at home. At the time of this...