New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:8 what saith it. Paul in this passage is quoting (or better, paraphrasing and applying) Deuteronomy 30:14. It is noteworthy that he refers to its authority, not as that of the Scripture or as Moses or as God, as he usually does when quoting from the Old Testament, but rather as “the righteousness which is of faith” speaking (Romans 10:6), in effect personifying that righteousness (note I Corinthians 1:30).
10:9 the Lord Jesus. This should be understood as confessing “Jesus as Lord,” with all that such a confession implies. The Greek word, kurios, was applied in the Roman world to the emperor, but in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament to God. Thus confessing Jesus as Lord meant both renouncing emperor worship and acknowledging Jesus as God. Furthermore, one does not come to Jesus with reservations as to what he will do or believe. Jesus must be accepted as God, and as Lord of his life; One must confess that he will believe and obey His Word unreservedly, in particular, believing in the bodily resurrection, which implies belief also in creation, for only the Creator of life could defeat sin and death.
10:10 unto salvation. There can be no such thing as a secret Christian, for verbal confession of Jesus as Lord is prerequisite to receiving eternal salvation, after receiving His imputed righteousness by faith.
10:11 not be ashamed. Paul again quotes Isaiah 28:16 (note Romans 9:33). In Isaiah, “be ashamed” was “make haste.” The believer finds true rest in Christ.
10:12 Jew and the Greek. Although Paul has been writing primarily to the Jewish believers in the Roman churches, he again stresses that the gospel applies equally to the Greek converts and, indeed, to all who call on the Lord Jesus.
10:13 whosoever shall call. See notes on Acts 2:21, where the same verse is quoted (Joel 2:32). Paul had been stressing God’s electing sovereignty in Romans 9; here he again stresses human responsibility. Both are true.
10:15 it is written. This testimony is found in Isaiah 52:7. Note also Ephesians 6:15: “[having] your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace.” A similar figure is used in Nahum 1:15.
10:16 Esaias saith. Isaiah 53:1 is quoted here. Although the gospel of peace with God is, indeed, “glad tidings” to all who will believe, most will refuse to believe.
10:17 by the word. In this verse, “word” means, literally, “saying” (same as in Ephesians 6:17, referring to “the sword of the Spirit”). That is, not just the Bible in general, but each individual “saying” is vital to the full understanding of God’s plan. In some manuscripts, “the word of God” is replaced by “the word of Christ.” Since Christ is God, the effect is the same.