New Defender's Study Bible Notes
23:42 said unto Jesus, Lord. The repentant thief, beholding Christ and hearing the first two words from the cross (Luke 23:34; John 19:26), believed that Jesus was Lord and that he could, indeed, be forgiven. He had no opportunity to be baptized, change his life style, or to do anything except repent, believe on Christ, and confess his faith (Romans 10:9). That was sufficient!
23:43 To day. They would die that day, and the soul of the unrepentant thief would descend into Hades, to await condemnation at the judgment day. The other, because of his trust in Christ, would go with Him to paradise, or “Abraham’s Bosom” (Luke 16:22). While there, the Lord would proclaim His victory to the many imprisoned evil angels confined there in chains of darkness (II Peter 2:4; I Peter 3:19). He would then set free the souls of those who had died in faith (Luke 4:18), taking them and their “paradise” with Him to the “third heaven” (Ephesians 4:8-10; II Corinthians 12:2-4), and carrying with Him “the keys of hell (hades) and of death” (Revelation 1:18).