New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:11 good shepherd. This is the fourth of the Lord’s “I am” claims in the Gospel of John. This also is another shadow of His coming substitutionary death—not only guiding His sheep, but also dying for them.
10:14 the good shepherd. The Greek word for “shepherd” is the same as for “pastor.” Thus Jesus was—and is—the good pastor. By extension today, a good pastor is one who leads his flock into good pasture, who knows his flock, is known by his flock, and would even give his life for his flock. Note I Peter 5:2-5 and Hebrews 13:20,21.
10:16 other sheep I have. The “other sheep” of which the Lord spoke were obviously not of the “fold” of Israel. They were Gentiles who, through His work, would soon be brought into the same fold (compare Ephesians 2:11-22).
10:18 lay it down. Note the tremendous dimensions of this claim. Jesus would not be put to death by the Jews, or the Romans, or even by Satan. He refused twelve legions of angels to save Him (Matthew 26:53). Finally, after He had finished all the sufferings He must endure for our sins, deliberately and of His own volition, Jesus dismissed His spirit (Luke 23:46) from His body. No ordinary man could ever do this.
10:18 take it again. Jesus was raised from the dead, not by some miracle worker, or by an angel, or even by His Father, but by His own power.
10:22 feast of the dedication. The “Feast of Dedication” is what is now known as Hanukkah, which occurs during the Christmas season. The events described in John 7:1–10:21 occurred during and immediately following the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7:2), around two months earlier than those in John 10:22-39. The “Feast of the Dedication” had been observed since the days of the Maccabees, around 165 B.C., commemorating the cleansing of the temple after its desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes.
10:27 they follow me. The Lord resumed His use of the sheep-and-shepherd “proverb;” evidently it had made a lasting impression on His questioners, even after so long a time (see note on John 10:22). He now stressed the permanence of this relationship (see also John 5:24).
10:28 out of my hand. Not only is eternal life a present possession, but the good Shepherd assures us that no one (“any man” is actually “anyone,” including even Satan himself) could ever take it away.