12:1 Jeshua. Twenty-two “chief of the priests” that went to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel and Jeshua are listed in Nehemiah 12:1-7, whereas only four groups of priests are listed in Ezra 2:36-39. Evidently the four original families of priests were divided into twenty-two groups after arrival in Jerusalem.
12:1 Ezra. The Ezra mentioned in this verse (also Nehemiah 12:13,33) was not the Ezra who wrote the book of Ezra. That Ezra, however—Ezra the scribe—is again mentioned in Nehemiah 12:26,36.
12:22 Jaddua. According to Josephus, Jaddua was high priest at the time Alexander the Great defeated the Persians, and Greece became the dominant empire in the world. He is said to have dissuaded Alexander from his intention of destroying Jerusalem.
12:22 Darius. This Darius is not Darius the Great, of course, but probably Darius III, or possibly Darius II. Nehemiah is said by Josephus to have lived to a great age, so he could well have known Jaddua, at least in the early years of his priestly ministry.
12:23 the book of the chronicles. This book is not either of the Biblical books of Chronicles, but rather an independent record of heads of houses.
12:23 Johanan. Johanan (same as the Jonathan of Nehemiah 12:11) is mentioned by name in the Elephantine papyri, as being high priest in about 408 B.C.
12:24 ward over against ward. That is, “garrison next to garrison.”