40:12 measured the waters. This series of rhetorical questions—to which the only answer can be the omniscient God—stresses the precise accuracy with which the various components of the creation have been designed. The amount and distribution of the earth’s waters (unique to the earth, so far as known, in all the universe), as studied in such sciences as hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, is probably the most important question of all.
40:12 with the span. The almost infinite number and variety of stars have all been carefully planned and even named by God (Isaiah 40:26). This is the domain of astronomy.
40:12 dust of the earth. The “dust of the earth,” out of which all things are constructed (e.g., Genesis 2:7), must refer to the basic elements of matter. The precise divine measurements of these chemical elements suggests the valence structure of their molecules, whereby the structure and properties of all the various materials and compounds in nature are controlled.
40:12 weighed the mountains. Geophysics is structured around the principle of isostasy (“equal weights”), the growth and motions of the earth’s physiographical features all interrelated with their sizes, densities, etc.