11:1 substance. The word translated “substance” (Greek hupostasis), meaning “that which stands under”) is translated “person” in Hebrews 1:3. It means basically “the foundation.” Contrast apostasis (from which we derive “apostasy”), which means “that which stands away.” The term “hypostatic union,” meaning the union of God and man in Jesus Christ, comes from this word hupostasis. It refers to their “substantive,” or “foundational,” union.
11:1 evidence. The word here for “evidence” (Greek elegchos) is found elsewhere only in II Timothy 3:16, where it is rendered as “reproof.” The basic meaning is probably “conviction.”
11:2 elders. These “elders” probably meant the ancient patriarchs listed in the subsequent verses, rather than elders of the Israelite theocracy or the elders of the local church. The word itself means, simply, “elderly man.”
11:3 faith. The word “faith” occurs twenty-four times in this chapter, with the great theme that true saving faith (Hebrews 10:39) and faith to live by (Hebrews 10:38) will inevitably produce works of faith that demonstrate its reality (see also James 2:14-26). This has been already demonstrated by a great “cloud of witnesses” (Hebrews 12:1), whose works of faith have been described in the Old Testament, and are outlined in some cases here.
11:3 worlds. The word for “worlds” (Greek aion) was used to mean either “age” or the physical world, or both, depending on context. It seems to anticipate our present scientific understanding of the cosmos as a space/time/matter continuum. All (space, time, matter) were framed by the Word of God, the Lord Jesus Christ (compare Hebrews 1:2; John 1:1-3,14; Psalm 33:6,9). Note also that the special creation of the universe is the very first object of this living, saving faith. Faith in redemption without faith in creation is impossible in any meaningful sense. Only the Creator can save.