New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:22 Elam. Elam is the ancestor of the Elamites, who later merged with the Medes (descendants of Madai) to form the Medo-Persian empire.
10:22 Asshur. Asshur gives his name to the Assyrians, although his settlement on the Tigris was later taken over by Nimrod (Genesis 10:11).
10:22 Lud. According to Josephus, Lud was the ancestor of the Lydians.
10:22 Aram. Aram is the father of the Aramaeans, or Syrians. The Aramaic language was almost a world language in the ancient world, and even some parts of the Old Testament were first written in Aramaic.
10:23 Uz. Uz gave his name to Job’s homeland (Job 1:1) but little is known of the other three sons of Aram. Evidently the children of Aram had more contact with Shem than his other grandsons (except through Arphaxad) since none of the others are listed.