New Defender's Study Bible Notes
16:12 kings of the east. The great populations of Asia (Japan, China, India, etc.) have long followed the ancient religions of occult pantheistic evolutionism. They will be easily influenced by demonic spirits to oppose the soon-returning Christ, especially when they see the Euphrates wither away, signifying to them that the ancient boundary between east and west has been removed. They will recall all too well the terrible suffering inflicted on them by the demon horsemen from the Euphrates just four years previously (Revelation 9:14-19), but now these are gone. They know too that the plagues had been called down by the two witnesses last seen in Jerusalem, and that the land promised by God to Israel had extended to the Euphrates (Genesis 15:18). Even though they may have resisted the beast for a time (note Daniel 11:44), they will willingly hasten to the land of Israel to fight against Christ and His people, when the beast summons them this time.