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If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

30:2 If a man vow. These statutes concerning vows were possibly given at this time because it had only recently become a problem in the camp. Perhaps the imminence of the long-awaited Canaanite campaign had stimulated numerous rash vows which would be difficult to fulfill. Such vows usually were accompanied by a sort of bargain with God, expecting Him to do something in return (e.g., Jephthah’s vow, Judges 11:30, 31). Such bargains made with God or promises made in God’s name became blasphemies if made lightly and tentatively, and these statutes were intended to stress their gravity. Although vows were never commanded, once made they must be fulfilled, since God’s name had been involved.

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