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New Defender's Study Bible Notes
23:43 To day. They would die that day, and the soul of the unrepentant thief would descend into Hades, to await condemnation at the judgment day. The other, because of his trust in Christ, would go with Him to paradise, or “Abraham’s Bosom” (Luke 16:22). While there, the Lord would proclaim His victory to the many imprisoned evil angels confined there in chains of darkness (II Peter 2:4; I Peter 3:19). He would then set free the souls of those who had died in faith (Luke 4:18), taking them and their “paradise” with Him to the “third heaven” (Ephesians 4:8-10; II Corinthians 12:2-4), and carrying with Him “the keys of hell (hades) and of death” (Revelation 1:18).