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And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore ° thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle?

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

4:11 right hand. This reference indicates there were 120,000 little children in Nineveh, in addition to the adolescents and adults, and God cared for them. Even though the Assyrians were mortal enemies of Israel, yet these chosen people of God needed to remember that God’s original promise to their father Abraham had included a promise that, through them, all nations of the earth would be blessed (Genesis 12:3). Their promised Messiah was also to be “a light to the Gentiles” (Isaiah 49:6).

4:11 cattle. God is concerned not only about all people but also all His animal creatures—even sparrows (Matthew 10:29). Most of God’s remarkable monologue to Job, for example, deals with His providential care of the animal kingdom (Job 38:39–41:34).

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