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New Defender's Study Bible Notes

10:3 Ashkenaz. Ashkenaz has long been associated with the German Jews, known still as the Ashkenazi. The name is also possibly preserved in the names Scandia and Saxon, as well as a region of Armenia once known as Sakasene.

10:3 Riphath. Josephus associates Riphath with the Paphlagonians. There is a possibility that the name Carpathia, and even Europe, come from Riphath.

10:3 Togarmah. Togarmah is probably the ancestor of the Armenians. The Jewish Targums say that Germany was derived from Togarmah. The name may also have a connection with Turkey and Turkestan.

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