New Defender's Study Bible Notes
22:25 a Roman. This was the second occasion on which the apostle used his rights under Roman citizenship (see on Acts 16:37-38) as a defense. He had already been beaten several times with rods, imprisoned, and persecuted in various ways. However, the Roman scourge, or flagellum, was almost certain to be permanently crippling or even fatal, so Paul reminded his captors of his rights.