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New Defender's Study Bible Notes

2:11 railing accusation. Compare Jude 9. These false teachers are quite ready to rail against angels and other dignities, but the holy angels do not reciprocate, for even wicked humans still were created in God’s image. Only Satan has the effrontery to do this (Revelation 12:10).

2:14 exercised. “Exercised” is the Greek gumnazo, whence we get our word “gymnasium.” The false teachers have practiced covetousness as intensely as an athlete exercises before a contest.

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