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And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Therefore ° rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.
And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child.
And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.
And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

12:1 great wonder in heaven. “Wonder” is the same as “sign.” By calling this miraculous scene in the heavens a sign John helps to confirm that the other events described in Revelation should be understood literally if they are not designated as signs. Since the meaning of the sign is not explained in the immediate context, it must be understood in terms of previous revelation. As a matter of fact, the sign is so comprehensive that it embraces the entire plan of redemption, beginning with the Edenic promise. Here, in the middle of the book of Revelation, the Lord has provided through John several parenthetical revelations, each extending from primeval history up to this climactic point, the midpoint of the seven-year tribulation, and then even on beyond to the end.

12:1 twelve stars. While this symbol might at first suggest a connection with Joseph’s dream (Genesis 37:9-10), in which he saw the sun, moon and eleven stars, representing his parents and brothers, bowing down to him, there are important differences, and the sign must go far beyond that. The key is in Revelation 12:17, the climactic verse of the chapter, referring to the enmity of the dragon against the woman and her seed. This recalls God’s Protevangelic promise in Eden. Speaking to the old serpent, He had said: “I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed, and her seed; [He] shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel” (Genesis 3:15). Thus the woman in the sign must represent Eve “the mother of all living” first of all, then Israel, the wife of Jehovah, and the church, the bride of Christ. Even beyond that, the phrase “the woman” must refer to all godly women and finally to Mary, the particular godly woman who was chosen to bring the promised Seed into the world.

The sign will have special application in this context to Israel; the church will have been taken out of the world, and God will be dealing with Israel in a special way once again. The sun may well symbolize Christ Himself, the light of the world (John 8:12), for the woman has “put on Christ.” The moon is a sort of counterfeit light, or false religion, which the woman has put under her feet; and the twelve stars in her crown possibly represent the tribes of Israel, soon to be revived and restored as the special nation of God’s election.

12:2 delivered. There is a general application here to the whole world, “because the [creation] itself [must] be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now” (Romans 8:21-22). The more specific application, however, must be to Israel and then Mary herself: “Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail.” “But thou Bethlehem Ephrata,…out of thee shall He come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting” (Micah 4:10; 5:2). Note also such tangentially related passages as Galatians 4:26 and I Timothy 2:15.

12:3 great red dragon. The sign of the great dragon is explained in Revelation 12:9. He is “that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan,” who has tried to destroy the woman and her spiritual seed ever since Eden. Parenthetically, in order to be used as a sign, the dragon itself must have been a real animal, well known and feared by the ancient world but now extinct (see on Genesis 1:21; Job 40:15-24; Isaiah 27:1). Though evolutionists would disagree, dragons almost certainly were dinosaurs, universally known by the nations of antiquity to exist as real creatures.

12:3 ten horns. The “seven heads and ten horns” on this hydra-headed dragon evidently represent the great kingdoms of past history and the chief current kingdoms of this final period of history, all of which have been and will be imbued with the spirit of the old serpent (I John 5:19). See notes on Revelation 17:10-12 for more specific identification.

12:4 to the earth. These “stars of heaven” are identified as Satan’s angels in Revelation 12:9. In Satan’s primeval rebellion against God, he was able to persuade a third of God’s “innumerable company of angels” (Hebrews 12:22) to follow him. They were “cast out into the earth” (Revelation 12:9) as a result (see also Isaiah 14:12; Ezekiel 28:17; Luke 10:18). Some even went to the lowest hell (II Peter 2:4) and some were bound in the Euphrates (Revelation 9:14) as a result of further specific and very flagrant sins. There are still multitudes of demonic angels, however, freely roaming the world and serving “the prince of the power of the air” (Ephesians 2:2), and these hosts will be more active and dangerous than ever in these final days.

12:4 devour her child. Ever since the Protevangelic promise of Genesis 3:15, Satan has been attempting to prevent the promised Seed from being born, beginning with his attack on Cain and Abel (I John 3:12), and even attempting to corrupt the entire human race in the days of Noah (Genesis 6:4-13). In spite of his efforts, once Christ was born, Satan tried to destroy Him with Herod’s slaughter of the babes at Bethlehem. When that failed, he then tried to corrupt Christ in the wilderness temptation, and finally tried several times to have Him slain before He could go to the cross.

12:5 rod of iron. Note Psalm 2:9 and Revelation 19:15. This clearly identifies the Lord Jesus Christ as the “man child,” and therefore as the promised Seed.

12:5 caught up. The primary reference here is certainly to the resurrection and ascension of Christ. However, the phrase “caught up” is also used in connection with the rapture of believers (I Thessalonians 4:17). Christ also promised the overcoming believers that they would also share in His rule of the nations with a rod of iron (Revelation 2:27), so this verse probably includes all those who were “in Christ” at the time of the rapture.

12:6 a thousand two hundred and threescore days. The “woman” at this time can only be Israel, and the “wilderness” into which she flees must be the desert-and-mountain regions east and southeast of the Dead Sea. This is the region occupied in ancient times by the peoples of Ammon, Moab and Edom, and it is this area that Israel will flee to escape the armies of the prince who is also called the Beast (Daniel 11:36-45; see also Isaiah 16:1-5; 26:20-21). Gentile Christians—that is, those that will accept Christ during the first half of the tribulation—will either have been martyred or gone into hiding. On the other hand, the 144,000 sealed Israelites and probably many other Israelites in Jerusalem will either have become Christians or at least have entered sincerely into the Jewish worship at the restored temple in Jerusalem. All of these Israelites, probably led by the 144,000, will need to make a very rapid exit from Jerusalem and Israel, when the “abomination of desolation” is set up by the beast in the temple. See notes on Matthew 24:15-21 and Revelation 13:14-17. There in the wilderness the Lord will care for them during the final 1260 days (3½ years) of the tribulation. For those Jews who lag back or fail to escape for some reason, whether in Jerusalem or anywhere else, this period will see the most deadly pogrom in the long history of Jewish persecution. “Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble, but he shall be saved out of it” (Jeremiah 30:7).

12:7 dragon. At this time of Jacob’s trouble, the archangel Michael will “stand up” for them (Daniel 12:1), and this will result in a great war in heaven—probably in the atmospheric heaven, which had been Satan’s domain, and where the Lord has met with His redeemed and raptured saints. There Satan and his angels then will be defeated and cast permanently down to the earth (Revelation 12:9). How this war will be fought has not been revealed, but both faithful and fallen angels have tremendous energies and powers, of which humans have little comprehension.

12:9 cast out. Appropriately, and providentially, this is the central verse in the book of Revelation. The dragon is here identified as the serpent of Eden (Genesis 3:1), as the Satan who tested Job (Job 1:6), and as the Devil who tested Jesus (Matthew 4:1). See also Revelation 20:2.

12:9 deceiveth the whole world. As the great deceiver, Satan has deceived the whole world with the great lie with which he evidently deceived himself in the beginning—namely, that God is not really the Creator, Sustainer, and Judge of all things, and that, consequently, both men and angels can reject His Word, rebel against His rule and ultimately aspire to be “gods” themselves. This lie finds its only rationale in the false premise of evolution, the idea that the universe always existed or exists independently of a Creator and is able to evolve itself into higher and higher orders of being. This lie may take the form of either atheism or pantheism, but both deny God and His revealed truth of special creation. With it, Satan has deceived the whole world, in every age and culture since the creation. Note I John 5:19; II Corinthians 4:3-4.

12:9 into the earth. Satan had long ago been cast out of his heavenly authority as the anointed cherub (Ezekiel 28:14-17), though he still has access to God as “the accuser of our brethren” (Revelation 12:10). Even that access will end when he is defeated by Michael; from then on he and his angels will be limited to the earth alone, where he will still desperately try to overthrow God.

12:10 accuser of our brethren. A glimpse of the continual slandering activity of the devil (Greek diabolos, meaning “slanderer” or “false accuser”) is given us in the case of Job (Job 1:7, 11); Joshua the high priest (Zechariah 3:1-2) and Peter (Luke 22:31), as well as his ongoing campaign against every believer (I Peter 5:8).

12:11 the blood of the Lamb. This is the last reference in the Bible to the shed blood of the Lord Jesus, “the Lamb of God” (John 1:29). There are at least forty-three such references, all testifying in one way or another to its great significance in our salvation. Here, very appropriately, the emphasis is on its power for overcoming Satan in his final attempt to destroy the work of God in salvation.

12:13 persecuted the woman. This intense persecution of Israel in the very last years of the present age is the subject of many passages in the writings of the Old Testament prophets (e.g., Leviticus 26:40-45; Deuteronomy 30:1-5; Isaiah 11:10-16; 27:6-13; Jeremiah 23:3-8; 30:3-11; 31:7-11; 32:37-41; Ezekiel 34:11-16; 36:22-28; Daniel 12:1).

12:14 great eagle. This indicates angelic, miraculous help to the fleeing Israelites, evidently intending to remind them of similar divine help when they fled Pharaoh in the days of the Exodus (note the reference to “eagles’ wings” in Exodus 19:4).

12:14 nourished. Same word as “fed.” Just as God miraculously fed the Israelites in the wilderness under Moses, so He will again nourish these last-day Israelites in the wilderness as they await the Messiah.

12:14 a time, and times, and half a time. This duration is obviously the same as the 1260 days, or 3½ years, of Revelation 12:6. A “time” here clearly means a “year.” The use of this terminology here probably is used to tie it to the prophecies of Daniel 7:25 and 12:7.

12:15 as a flood. This is a symbolic flood, for it is cast out of the mouth of the symbolic serpent. The devil-energized “beast” (Revelation 13:4), having disrupted the temple worship in Jerusalem, placing his own image there to be worshipped (Revelation 13:15; Matthew 24:15), then seeking to execute all who refuse to do so, will be enraged at the Jews in particular, and will send a “flood” after them, probably a flood of military might—armies, artillery, airplanes—but God will destroy them all, just as He did long ago with Pharaoh’s hosts. Note Psalm 124:1-6 and Isaiah 59:19.

12:16 swallowed up the flood. The means of destruction is apparently a sudden great fissure opening up in the earth, swallowing up the troops and artillery, and even the planes, if any. The earth’s global upheavals during the first 3½ years, with many earthquakes, will have left the great Rift Valley of the region extremely unstable, so such an event could easily be triggered at God’s Word (compare Numbers 16:32-33).

12:17 remnant of her seed. This reference to the “seed of the woman” undoubtedly is reminiscent of God’s Protevangelic promise in Genesis 3:15. When the beast, who is in a very special sense, the “seed of the serpent,” is thwarted in his attempt to destroy the fleeing Israelites of Jerusalem, he will turn his wrath against those men and women all over the world, whether Jews or Gentiles, who “keep the commandments of God”—that is, especially those refusing to worship his image which has been installed in the temple at Jerusalem—and who bear testimony of their faith in Jesus Christ. All these are the true spiritual seed of the woman, and since the dragon cannot get at the heavenly Seed, he will seek to destroy the “remnant of her seed.” But they will “overcome him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony” and even by a victorious martyr’s death (Revelation 12:11).

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