New Defender's Study Bible Notes
30:1 Agur. The name Agur may mean “gatherer” and Jakeh “hearkening.” Ithiel means “God with me” and Ucal means “overcomer.” Since none of these men are mentioned anywhere else in Scripture, it may be they are just symbolic names. However, their meanings are uncertain, so it is conjectural as to what the symbolic meaning might be. Probably they were real men, known to Solomon. The important thing is the message, which Solomon thought well to include in the Proverbs.
30:1 the prophecy. “Prophecy” means essentially a divinely revealed message, not necessarily a prediction. In Proverbs 30:2-3, Agur specifically disclaims any wisdom of his own in transcribing his prophecy.
30:4 ascended up into heaven. The answer to the seven rhetorical questions in these verses can be none other than God Himself, together with His Son. The Lord Jesus gave the answer to the first two questions one thousand years later, in his conversation with Nicodemus (John 3:13).
30:4 what is His name. Agur was certainly familiar with the name of God as Creator (that is, Elohim—see verse 5) and His name as the eternally existing one (that is, Jehovah—see Proverbs 30:9), but he did not know the name associated with having a Son. It is noteworthy that the Hebrew word for father, ab, occurs over five hundred times in the Old Testament, but never in addressing God in prayer, not even in the many prayers in the books of Psalms. Yet, when He came into the world, He taught us to address God as “Our Father” (e.g., Matthew 6:9). When Christ Himself prayed, especially in His hour of greatest stress, He prayed “Abba, Father” (Mark 14:36). A reasonable answer to Agur’s question, therefore, is that the name of God in relation to the Son is simply “Ab,” or “Abba,” the Aramaic equivalent. Unlike the ancient Israelites, we now feel very comfortable in addressing God as “Father”—or even as “Abba, Father” (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6).
30:4 his son’s name. Here is strong Old Testament evidence that the God of creation has a Son, by whom, in fact, He formed the winds and the waters and all the ends of the earth, and who finally descended from heaven to become the Son of man as well as Son of God. That Son’s name was given later through the prophet Isaiah—“Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, The Everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace” (Isaiah 9:6).
30:5 Every word of God. Note the emphasis that every word of God is pure and worthy of trust—not just some words, but every word, and not just the thoughts, but the words!
30:6 Add thou not. Compare Revelation 22:18, 19. It is a serious blasphemy for a creature to try either to augment or dilute the words of the Creator.
30:15 The horseleach. This is the only reference in the Bible to the leach, a blood-sucking wormlike creature which, like the three entities it introduces, seemed to be insatiable. Its two mouths are both named “Give” (the word “crying” is not in the original).
30:19 way of a man with a maid. This “way” is the mysterious process by which true love develops between a young man and his virgin sweetheart.
30:20 way of an adulterous woman. The adulteress in Proverbs 30:20 is contrasted with the virgin in Proverbs 30:19. Yet, in a sense, the hypocritical “way” of the adulteress is as difficult to comprehend as the four “ways” of Proverbs 30:19. She can deliberately flout the law of God and her husband’s love and yet remain smug and self-righteous.
30:25 The ants. Agur, in Psalm 30:24-31, draws spiritual lessons for man from the instincts created by God for animals, specifically referring to ants, conies, locusts, spiders, lions, greyhounds, and goats—seven animals representing all the animals. Note also Job 12:7-9.
30:26 The conies. The animal called “coney” in the Bible was probably a rock badger, or hyrax.
30:28 The spider. The Hebrew word is used only in this verse and is not the usual word for spider. Some authorities think it refers to a lizard. The statement in the verse is true in either case.