New Defender's Study Bible Notes
47:1 sit in the dust. The judgments prophesied in this chapter against Babylon were fulfilled precursively when it was defeated by the Medo-Persians about 170 years later. Its eventual complete fulfillment, however, awaits the time yet future when rebuilt Babylon is completely destroyed and will finally be in silent darkness thereafter (Isaiah 47:5; see Revelation 18).
47:5 O daughter of the Chaldeans. Although Assyria was still the greatest kingdom in the world at the time Isaiah was writing, the Babylonian star was rising, and would eventually defeat both the Egyptians and the Assyrians, becoming essentially a world empire about a century after Isaiah. The prophet, however, was enabled by the Holy Spirit to see the arrogance and wickedness that would characterize Babylon and to predict its eventual defeat and humiliation by Cyrus and his Medo-Persian armies.
47:11 come upon thee suddenly. Daniel later tells how the Persians suddenly and unexpectedly entered the Babylonian capital and overthrew that mighty empire in a single night (Daniel 5:13-31).
47:13 astrologers. All such occult devices for predicting or determining future actions are condemned by God, whether in ancient paganism or modern New Age occultism. God’s Word is sufficient (Isaiah 8:20).