New Defender's Study Bible Notes
30:1 Amalekites had invaded. God had commanded the utter destruction of the Amalekites (I Samuel 15:3), but evidently Saul had destroyed only one contingent of these nomadic people.
30:7 Abiathar. Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech, who had been chief priest at the time Saul had Doeg the Edomite slaughter all the priests serving under Ahimelech (I Samuel 22:18). Abiathar alone had escaped (I Samuel 22:20), and so was serving as chief priest under David, possessing the ephod with the Urim and Thummim.
30:10 were so faint. The men had marched about sixty miles from Aphek to Ziklag (I Samuel 29:1) carrying all their supplies as well as weapons, and then on to Besor. One-third of these men were too weary to go farther, so David left them with the supplies, enabling the others to proceed more rapidly.
30:24 tarrieth by the stuff. This means “staying by the supplies.” The principle has an important modern spiritual application. The ministry of prayer and financial support for those who go to the mission field is equally important in the results.
30:26 elders of Judah. David’s act of sharing the spoil with his countrymen in Judah would serve the purpose of beginning a reconciliation with his own people, after his period of seeming support for the Philistines.