New Defender's Study Bible Notes
6:1 two mountains. This eighth and last vision in the sequence of visions given to Zechariah, evidently all on the same night, climaxes the others by indicating that God is sending out His heavenly hosts to assure that the prophecies of the first seven will be fulfilled. Both the promised blessings on Israel and the judgments on the nations are sure to be accomplished. Although the promises came forth from God’s heavenly throne, they appear in the vision as emanating from His promised future earthly throne in Jerusalem, between two “mountains of brass”—that is, mountains of great value.
6:3 grisled. That is, “gray-colored.”
6:5 four spirits. These “spirits” are angels (Psalm 104:4), possibly the four angels mentioned in either Revelation 7:1 or 9:14. Like the “two anointed ones” that “stand by the Lord of the whole earth” (Zechariah 4:14), they await the exact time when God sends them forth. That they are angels of judgment is shown by the symbol of chariots and horses.
6:7 the bay. “Bay” should actually read “strong,” and may refer to the “red horses” which are mentioned in Zechariah 6:2, but not Zechariah 6:6-7. The color red may have been deleted to indicate that God will make all war and bloodshed to cease when He restores Israel (Micah 4:1-3).
6:7 walked to and fro. Three times it is stressed that the “strong” horses will “walk to and fro through the earth,” indicating that God will assuredly see that His will is accomplished everywhere, even in the areas still under Babylon’s influence.
6:11 the head of Joshua. This symbolic crowning of Joshua (same name as “Jesus”), appropriately follows the completion of the eight visions, since the kingdom age will follow the cleansing of the world and the restoration of Israel. It is significant that the crowning is applied to Joshua the high priest rather than to Zerubbabel, the governor and descendant of kings. There could be no other king of Judah until “the Branch” comes (Jeremiah 33:15-17, compared with Jeremiah 22:30). The kingly line of Judah and the priestly line of Levi had always been kept distinct, yet here Joshua the priest would symbolically become “a priest upon the throne” (Zechariah 6:13).
6:12 The BRANCH. Confirming the prophecy of Jeremiah (see note on Zechariah 6:11), “the man whose name is The Branch” will come to occupy David’s throne and to build the millennial temple. But He will also be “a priest for ever” (Psalm 110:4), our eternal Priest-King. Joshua would build the restoration temple, along with Zerubbabel, and this becomes a type of Christ as both priest and king. The crowns themselves were to be laid up in the temple as a memorial (Zechariah 6:14).