New Defender's Study Bible Notes
10:1 Nehemiah, the Tirshatha. The governor was Nehemiah, and he was first to sign this renewed covenant by Israel to keep God’s laws.
10:8 these were the priests. Apparently twenty-one representative priest signed the covenant, not including Zidkijah (or Zedekiah) who may have been either an aide to Nehemiah or else chief among the priests at the time. Ezra, the most important among the priests at Jerusalem, did not sign, however. No reason is given, but perhaps it was because he considered his work finished at Jerusalem and soon would be returning to Persia. He had established the governmental and judicial systems for Judah, had led the people in a revival of awareness of God’s Word, and Nehemiah had been appointed governor to carry on the work he had begun.
10:28 the rest of the people. In addition to the representative priests, Levites and lay leaders (Nehemiah 10:8-9,14), all the people gave assent to the covenant. Five key points were noted in their oath: (1) no intermarriage with “the people of the land”; (2) no commerce on the Sabbath or any other holy day; (3) the ordinances of the seventh year; (4) an annual temple tax for the services there (Nehemiah 10:30-33); (5) reestablishment of the first fruits offerings and the other offerings specified in the Mosaic laws.
10:30 not give our daughters. Disobeying this command of God (e.g., Exodus 34:12-16) had already led the returned exiles into trouble (Ezra 9–10), and was still a problem even after the renewed covenant was in effect (Nehemiah 13:23-25).