New Defender's Study Bible Notes
24:4 two men. The account in Matthew 28:2 says there was an angel there, and Mark 16:5 says it was a “young man.” The two on the road to Emmaus said the women had “seen a vision of angels” (Luke 24:23). Angels can appear as men, and probably the women did see two angels, appearing as men, only one of whom did the speaking. Perhaps he was Gabriel, who had earlier announced the birth of Christ (Luke 1:26,31). There is also the intriguing possibility that these “two men” who “stood by” at the tomb were also the “two men” who “stood by” at the ascension (Acts 1:10) and are God’s “two witnesses” in the last days who “[stand] before the God of the earth” (Revelation 11:3-4).
See also Zechariah 4:14, which notes that the two witnesses are “the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth.” These witnesses cannot be angels, since they will be slain, then rise again (Revelation 11:7,11). But if they are men, waiting in heaven and standing by God, they could well be Enoch and Elijah. See notes on Revelation 11:3-12 for further discussion of this possibility.
24:13 furlongs. A “furlong” was originally a “long furrow,” considered about two hundred yards. The Greek word is stadia.
24:18 Cleopas. The second of the “two of them” who lived in Emmaus (Luke 24:13) was evidently “Mary the wife of Cleophas” (John 19:25), for the two evidently had a home in Emmaus where they could invite this “stranger” in for supper and rest (Luke 24:28-30). She had actually observed the crucifixion, and may have been among the women who had gone to the tomb that morning.
24:25 believe all. The resurrected Lord Jesus thus confirmed the doctrine of plenary inspiration; it is foolish and wrong-hearted to reject anything written in the Old Testament.
24:26 enter in to his glory. The Messianic Scriptures clearly teach that Christ would be crucified (e.g., Psalm 22, Isaiah 53), and then be raised (Psalm 16) and enter into His glory (e.g., Psalm 110), so that those who knew and believed the Scriptures should have been expecting these events.
24:27 beginning at Moses. It is very significant that, when the greatest Bible teacher—in fact the Author of the Book—taught Biblical truths, He began at the beginning! Genesis is the foundational book of the Bible, and it is essential that we understand and believe God’s revelation in Genesis if we would understand the rest of Scripture.
24:27 concerning himself. Jesus here confirms that all the Scriptures point, in one way or another, to the person and work of the Savior.
24:30 blessed it, and brake. There are nine occasions recorded in the gospels when Jesus took bread, blessed, broke and fed it to His disciples. No wonder they recognized Him “in breaking of bread” (Luke 24:35).
24:32 our heart burn. “Christian heartburn” results when the Lord—through the indwelling Spirit—opens the Scriptures today as we read and obey God’s Word. “His word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones, and I was weary with forbearing, and I could not stay” (Jeremiah 20:9).
24:32 opened to us. Note the order of this passage. When the Scriptures were opened, first their eyes were opened (Luke 24:31) and then their understanding was opened (Luke 24:45).
24:39 my feet. It seems the Lord Himself answers modern liberals who interpret the resurrection as spiritual, rather than physical. His spirit never died so could not be resurrected. He also refutes those who argue that the “appearances” to His disciples were “spiritual appearances,” or even hallucinations. Even they at first thought He was a spirit, but He then showed them the scars of the spikes that had pierced His hands and feet, and then even ate part of a fish and a honeycomb before them (Luke 24:37,40,42). They could no longer doubt the reality of His bodily resurrection, nor did they ever doubt it thereafter.
24:39 flesh and bones. It is significant that Christ did not use the more common phrase, “flesh and blood.” His blood had been shed on the cross, as the price of our redemption (I Peter 1:18-19), and now “flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God” (I Corinthians 15:50).
24:43 did eat before them. Although Jesus now was in His glorified spiritual body, it was clearly also a real physical body, capable of receiving and assimilating food. Since our resurrection bodies will be like His (Philippians 3:20-21), we also shall continue to eat food in the ages to come (Revelation 2:7; 19:9; 22:2).
24:44 must be fulfilled. Every promise of God concerning the person and work of Christ must be fulfilled, either at His first coming or His second coming. “The Scripture cannot be broken,” Jesus has assured us (John 10:35).
24:44 the psalms. This threefold division actually embraces the entire Old Testament canon. Another way of expressing this would be the historical writings, the poetical writings, and the prophetical writings. All are divinely inspired and inerrant in their very words.
24:45 their understanding. The Bible is not like any other book. While it is easy enough to be understood by the sincere and diligent believer, it is often incomprehensible foolishness to the unbeliever, for “the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God:…they are spiritually discerned” (I Corinthians 2:14). When Christ, by His indwelling Holy Spirit, opens our understanding, only then do we “understand the scriptures.”
24:47 repentance and remission of sins. The gospel of salvation which Christ has commanded us to preach involves “repentance” as a prerequisite to “forgiveness.” Repentance is not merely sorrow for past sins, but a complete change of mind toward God and toward sin, which is then proved real by a changed life. Note Acts 26:20. True saving faith is not what has been called “easy believism.” Note that “repentance” was to be preached along with “remission of sins,” both of them “in His name.” In Acts 10:43, Peter said that “through His name whosoever believeth in Him shall receive remission of sins.” Thus, “repentance in His name” is essentially synonymous with “believing in Him.” Either (or both) receive remission of sins. Believing and repenting are thus like two sides of the same coin. Both are part of the real coin, but only one side is seen at a time.
24:49 promise of my Father. This promise was the promise of the Holy Spirit, a promise made to the disciples in the upper room before the crucifixion (John 14:16-17). Christ also had told them He was sending them out into the world (John 20:21), but first they must be cautioned to wait until the promised Spirit is sent to empower them for that service. These concluding verses of Luke’s gospel correlate with the first section of his continuing narrative in the book of Acts (see Acts 1:1-11).