New Defender's Study Bible Notes
30:1 came again. See note on Ezekiel 29:1. This prophecy was not attached to a date like those before and after it (Ezekiel 29:1,17; 30:20). Probably it was given shortly after that in Ezekiel 29:1-16, focusing on the many cities and countries both in and near Egypt that were opposing the Babylonian invasion.
30:3 day of the LORD. “The day of the LORD” is the coming time when God will judge and punish the “heathen” (that is, the Gentile nations) for their rebellion against Him and their persecution of His people. Evidently the imminent invasion of the Babylonians (note Ezekiel 30:5), conquering Egypt, as well as Ethiopia, Libya, Lydia and Chub (an unknown nation mentioned only this once in the Bible), is seen as a precursive fulfillment of a greater judgment coming in the battles of the last days.
30:12 the hand of strangers. Egypt, certainly one of the greatest nations of the world historically, has been ruled by various “stranger” nations for over two thousand years, from Persia to Rome, to Arabs, to Britain and others.
30:13 Noph. Noph is the same as Memphis, the ancient capital of lower Egypt. This prophecy has been completely fulfilled. The great buildings and temples of Memphis, with their giant images, are completely gone.
30:14 Pathros. Pathros was the name for Upper Egypt, whose capital and chief metropolis was No, or Thebes. It was greater and more magnificent than even Memphis. It was not, like Memphis, doomed to extinction, but was to be “rent asunder” (Ezekiel 30:16), with all its multitudes “cut off” (Ezekiel 30:15). Today, its remarkable ruins constitute one of Egypt’s chief tourist attractions.
30:18 At Tehaphnehes. The last of the cities designated in this prophecy would actually be the first entered by the invading Babylonians, situated near Egypt’s northeast corner. Same as Tahpanhes.
30:20 eleventh year. This prophecy was given less than three months after that beginning in Ezekiel 29:1.