New Defender's Study Bible Notes
22:3 Gamaliel. See note on Acts 5:34. Being taught by Gamaliel, Paul had received the best possible training in the Scriptures and the Jews’ religion as a whole.
22:4 persecuted this way. Paul had not only consented to the stoning of Stephen, he had been “breathing out threatenings and slaughter” (Acts 8:1; 9:1) against all the followers of Christ.
22:9 heard not the voice. That is, they could hear the sound of a voice, but could not really hear it with understanding (Acts 9:7).
22:16 arise, and be baptized. See note on Acts 9:18.
22:16 wash away thy sins. Baptism may symbolize the washing away of one’s sins, just as it symbolizes death to the old life and rising to a new life (Romans 6:4-5). But just as one does not really die while in the water, neither can physical water wash away moral and spiritual sins. These are the metaphors of baptism. The reality which they speak about is a new life in Christ, with sins forgiven and the assurance of everlasting life, received through faith in Christ as Lord and the regenerating work of the indwelling Spirit of God. Sins really are “washed away” by regeneration (Titus 3:5).
22:25 a Roman. This was the second occasion on which the apostle used his rights under Roman citizenship (see on Acts 16:37-38) as a defense. He had already been beaten several times with rods, imprisoned, and persecuted in various ways. However, the Roman scourge, or flagellum, was almost certain to be permanently crippling or even fatal, so Paul reminded his captors of his rights.