New Defender's Study Bible Notes
23:1 against Keilah. Keilah was a fortified city (I Samuel 23:7) in the territory of Judah. It has been mentioned in the Amarna letters.
23:9 the ephod. The ephod contained the Urim and Thummim (Exodus 28:6-30), which somehow enabled the priest to determine God’s will (I Samuel 23:10-12).
23:13 about six hundred. David’s followers had increased from four hundred in a fairly short time (I Samuel 22:2).
23:15 wilderness of Ziph. Ziph was a town in the southern part of Judah, overlooking a wilderness region.
23:24 wilderness of Maon. Maon was a city in the hill country in southern Judah.
23:29 En-gedi. En-gedi, a town on the Dead Sea southeast of Jerusalem, possessed a perennial spring and a large cave. It was probably while he was in the stronghold there that David wrote Psalm 142.