four hundred and thirty years
3:17 four hundred and thirty years. The 430 years from the Abrahamic promise until the giving of the law to Moses and the 430 years of Israel’s extended stay in Egypt (Exodus 12:40) parallel each other, provided that the reference to “the covenant” here in Galatians 3:17 refers to the final ratification of this covenant, as confirmed to Jacob just as he and his family were leaving Canaan for Egypt (Genesis 46:1-4). This seems quite reasonable in the context of Paul’s argument; see also the comments on Acts 7:6 and Genesis 15:13.
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