New Defender's Study Bible Notes
35:11 cities of refuge. Six cities of refuge were designated out of the forty-eight assigned to the Levites (Numbers 35:6-7) to give those involved in unintentional manslaughter (as distinct from murder) refuge from an avenger.
35:12 the avenger. The “avenger” (Hebrew gaal, also translated “kinsman” or “redeemer”) acted under the authority of Genesis 9:6 in seeking to avenge the death of a near kinsman. Note Hebrews 6:18.
35:30 one witness. At least two witnesses must be available to testify in a capital crime, as a safeguard against one vindictive person causing the death of an innocent person. These would not necessarily have to be eye-witnesses. Rather, they must at least be independent witnesses of circumstantial evidences relevant to the crime.