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And these are the numbers of the bands that were ready armed to the war, and came to David to Hebron, to turn the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the LORD.

And these are the numbers of them according to the house of their fathers: Of Judah, the captains of thousands; Adnah the chief, and with him mighty men of valour three hundred thousand.

My mouth shall show forth thy righteousness and thy salvation all the day; for I know not the numbers thereof.

New Defender's Study Bible Notes

1:16 the stars also. These stars were scattered in tremendous numbers throughout the infinite recesses of the heavens (note Isaiah 55:9). The light energy emanating from them would henceforth traverse space to “give light on the earth,” providing patterns and movements which would also enable man to keep records of time and history. In order to serve these purposes, however, light energy trails would need to be established already in place in space between each star and earth. Thus, men would have been able to see stars billions of light-years away at the very moment of their formation, in accordance with the principle of mature creation, or creation of apparent age.

1:28 replenish. God’s first command to man was that of producing abundant progeny sufficient to fill the earth (not “replenish,” a misleading translation of the Hebrew word male). Perhaps the animals had been created in large numbers of each kind, but the human population began with only two people. The function of subduing the earth and having dominion over it would necessarily require a long time–first, for the growth of a large enough population to fill the earth, and second, for the acquiring of enough knowledge and skill to enable man to bring it under full control and development.

2:12 bdellium. The “bdellium” was evidently a precious gum, likened to the bread from heaven sent to the Israelites in the wilderness (Numbers 11:7).

3:1 he said. There is a possibility that some of the animals may have originally been able to communicate on an elementary level with their human masters, an ability later removed by the Curse. More likely, God merely allowed Satan to use the serpent’s throat (as He later allowed Balaam’s ass to speak–Numbers 22:28) and Eve was, in her innocence, not yet aware of the strangeness of it.

6:4 giants. These “giants” were the monstrous progeny of the demon-possessed men and women whose illicit activities led to God’s warning of imminent judgment. The Hebrew word is nephilim (“fallen ones”), a term possibly relating to the nature of their spiritual “parents,” the fallen angels. That they were also physical giants is evident from the fact that the same word is later used in connection with the giants in Canaan at the time of Joshua (Numbers 13:33) and by the fact that the word here was translated in the Septuagint by the Greek word gigantes.

6:4 also after that. “After that” clearly refers to Numbers 13:33 and probably represents an editorial insertion in Noah’s record by Moses. These giants in Canaan may also have had demonically-controlled parents; they were also known as the Anakim, the sons of Anak.

11:16 begat Peleg. If there are no genealogical gaps in Genesis 11:10-17, then the numbers add to 101 years from the Flood to the birth of Peleg right after the Dispersion. In view of the longevity of the times, plus the high advantages implicit in large families, as well as God’s command to multiply rapidly, a quite reasonable population growth model will indicate at least one thousand mature adults on the earth at the time of the Dispersion, and possibly many times this amount.

14:5 Rephaims. Some of these Canaanite tribes seem actually to have been demon-possessed, in the same manner as the demon-energized population before the Flood (see notes on Genesis 6:1-4). The Rephaim (“strong ones”) and the Zamzummim (“powerful ones,” probably the same as the Zuzim) along with the Emim, all seem to have been of “the sons of Anak” or the Anakim, and all seem to have been giants (note Deuteronomy 2:10,20; Joshua 15:13). In Numbers 13:33, these Anakim are actually said to have been “giants” (Hebrew nephilim, the same word as used in Genesis 6:4). Furthermore, the term rephaim is also used to refer to some of the spirits of the wicked dead in Hades (Job 26:5; Proverbs 2:18; 9:18; 21:16; Isaiah 14:9; 26:14). All of this suggests another irruption of demonic spirits after the Flood, possibly at the rebellion at Babel, with giant progeny again being produced through demon-possessed parents. Their descendants inhabited Canaan.

43:33 the men marvelled. No wonder they marveled! The probability that eleven men could be “accidentally” arranged in order of age is only one chance out of 39,917,000 (calculated by multiplying the numbers one through eleven together). Putting it another way, there are almost forty million different ways in which eleven men could be seated.

Introduction to Exodus Exodus is the first book of the Pentateuch actually written by Moses (see “Introduction” to Genesis). The latter part of Genesis was probably written by the sons of Jacob, beginning after Jacob’s signature at Genesis 37:2. Moses then seems to have tied the beginning of Exodus to the end of Genesis by a formula similar–though slightly different, using the word “names” instead of “generations”–to the other toledoth (listing of generations) sections in Genesis. The book of Exodus describes in detail the real beginnings of Israel as a nation, under the leadership of Moses. The high points are the miraculous deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt and the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. These and other events in Exodus are frequently referred to in later parts of the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, and all references clearly note Moses as author. There is no doubt whatever that all later generations of Israelites were confident that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch until the development of the J, E, D, P theory in the 19th century. Ever since the rise of “higher criticism,” under the leadership of Julius Wellhausen and other scholars in Germany, together with the simultaneous spread of Darwinian evolutionism in England, practically all the liberal theologians in every country and every denomination have rejected the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. In spite of all the evidence, they continue teaching that these books were not written until many centuries after Moses. It is significant that, among those scholars who reject the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch–Exodus in particular–there is no consensus as to who did write it, even among those who accept some form of the documentary hypothesis. For the Christian, the matter is settled by the fact that Jesus Christ recognized Moses as the author of Exodus (see, e.g., Mark 12:26, quoting from Exodus 3:6). The Pentateuch itself often says that Moses wrote down the accounts of the events described therein. The first such instance is in Exodus 17:14 (see also Exodus 24:4; 34:27; etc.). The main reason why liberal scholars rejected the Mosaic authorship–the ostensible reason, that is (the real reason is their naturalistic commitment to evolutionism)–is their assumption that Moses did not know how to write in that supposed early time of man’s cultural evolution. However, every knowledgeable scholar today knows that such an assumption was absurd. An abundance of archaeological research in the nations of the Near East has shown beyond any question that everyone, commoner as well as scholar, knew how to write in all those nations long before Moses’ time. Yet these liberal theologians and other scholars continue to reject Moses’ authorship. Also, many evolutionary archaeologists today reject the historicity of Exodus altogether, reasoning that none of the writings of Egypt and other Near East nations confirm the events of Exodus (the plagues in Egypt, the destruction of Pharaoh’s army in the Red Sea, the wanderings of two million or more Israelites in the Sinai wilderness for forty years). However, the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch and the historical accuracy of its record are fully accepted by later writers of both Old and New Testaments, and these writers certainly had better access to the facts involved than skeptics coming twenty centuries later would have. Correlation with archaeology may await further discoveries, especially in respect to the chronologies involved. Both radiocarbon dating and pottery dating are subject to many uncertainties, and the same is true of the transmitted Biblical text in some instances, especially in the accurate reproduction of numbers which might influence Biblical chronological calculations. We may be confident, in view of the wealth of internal evidence, that all these external questions will eventually be resolved in favor of the tradition of Mosaic authorship and historical accuracy of the entire Pentateuch.  

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